Because Trump was elected President, Putin may have misjudged Donald's competence as a politician. Putin may not have understood that Trump frequently (and pointlessly) alienates large groups of people. Did Putin misjudge Trump? He may have been misled by the relentless promotion of the Trump brand by the Trump organization. He may have been misled by fake news regarding Trump wealthy the businessman, which obscures the reality that Trump is a man of spotty education who cannot read or write. Like many other people, Putin might not understand that Trump is illiterate and therefore, woefully ignorant. Putin might not know that Trump knows nothing about history, foreign policy, or economics, nor about the multitude of other things that traditionally have been assumed to be required of a president. Yet if Putin has misjudged Trump, he is not alone. Trump has become famous, not because he is fit and well-qualified to be president, but rather because he is a demagogue.
Why would a man with such severe limitations run for president? If it is true that Trump is both impaired and unprepared, how is it that he appears to be so extremely confident? How could that be? Most people are terrified of getting into a situation that exceeds their abilities. Most become quite anxious at the prospect of embarrassing themselves. For example, the fear of public speaking is common. Trump's inability to read may have a neurological basis, one that also impairs his ability to accurately assess the limits of his abilities. He doesn't know that there is something wrong with him, not because he is in denial, but because he cannot recognize that he doesn't know that he is impaired and unprepared. "I'm a smart man," he says.
The Dunning-Kruger effect suggests that for all of us, our lack of knowledge (or lack of ability in an area where we are inexperienced) may prevent us from accurately understanding our own limits, giving us the false impression of being prepared when we are not, or knowledgeable when in fact, we are clueless.
source Wikipedia: Dunning-Kruger effect
"The Dunning–Kruger effect is a cognitive bias in which low-ability individuals suffer from illusory superiority, mistakenly assessing their ability as much higher than it really is.
Dunning and Kruger attributed this bias to a metacognitive incapacity, on the part of those with low ability, to recognize their ineptitude and evaluate their competence accurately.
"This pattern of over-estimating competence was seen in studies of skills as diverse as reading comprehension, practicing medicine, operating a motor vehicle, and playing games such as chess or tennis.
Dunning and Kruger proposed that, for a given skill, incompetent people will:
- fail to recognize their own lack of skill
- fail to recognize the extent of their inadequacy
- fail to accurately gauge skill in others
- recognize and acknowledge their own lack of skill only after they are exposed to training for that skill."
"Dunning has since drawn an analogy – "the anosognosia* of everyday life" – with a condition in which a person who experiences a physical disability because of brain injury seems unaware of, or denies the existence of, the disability, even for dramatic impairments such as blindness or paralysis: "If you're incompetent, you can't know you’re incompetent.… [T]he skills you need to produce a right answer are exactly the skills you need to recognize what a right answer is.""
* "Anosognosia ... is a deficit of self-awareness, a condition in which a person who suffers some disability seems unaware of the existence of their disability.
It was first named by the neurologist Joseph Babinski in 1914. Anosognosia results from physiological damage to brain structures, typically to the parietal lobe or a diffuse lesion on the fronto-temporal-parietal area in the right hemisphere. While this distinguishes the condition from denial, which is a psychological defense mechanism, attempts have been made at a unified explanation. Anosognosia is sometimes accompanied by asomatognosia, a form of neglect in which patients deny ownership of their limbs."
source Wikipedia: anosognosia
(Photo: AP/Mikhail Klimentyev, RIA)