you know, we could all do with a little, "Hydro Dub", did you know water is a strange element, it is the only one to expand when frozen, and there are about 1.5 billion cubic kilometres of water on Earth, that's 1.5 billion trillion litres, or 800 trillion Olympic swimming pools. If all that water was evenly spread, over the Earth's surface, it would have a depth of 3,700 metres. Water, good old H-2O, seems like a pretty simple substance to you and me. But in reality, water the foundation of life and most common of liquid is really weird,
1. Hot Water Freezes Faster Than Cold Water
Take two pails of water; fill one with hot water and the other one with cold water, and put them in the freezer. The hot one would be frozen before the cold one. But wait, you say, that's counter intuitive: wouldn't the hot water have to cool down to the temperature of the cold water before proceeding to freezing temperature, whereas the cold one has less to go, before freezing? In 1963, a Tanzanian high-school student named Erasto B. Mpemba was freezing hot ice cream mix in a cooking class when he noticed that a hot mix actually froze faster than a cold mix. When he asked his teacher about this phenomenon, his teacher ridiculed him by saying All I can say is that is Mpemba's physics, and not universal physics, Thankfully, Mpemba didn't back down he convinced a physics professor, to conduct an experiment which eventually confirmed his observations, in certain conditions, hot water indeed freezes before cold water, Actually, Mpemba was in good company. The phenomenon of hot water freezing first, now called the Mpemba effect was noted by none other than Aristotle, Francis Bacon and René Descartes. But how do scientists explain this strange phenomenon? It turns out that no one really knows, but there are several possible explanations, including differences in super cooling, evaporation, frost formation, convection, and effects of dissolved gasses between the hot and cold water. In reality - of course - it's much more complex than that: hot water freezes first (it forms ice at a higher temperature than cold water), whereas cold water freezes faster (it takes less time to reach the super cooled state, from which it forms ice)
2. Super cooling and "Instant" Ice
Everybody knows that when you cool water to 0 °C (32 °F) it forms ice, except that in some cases it doesn't!, You can actually chill very pure water, past its freezing point, without it ever becoming solid.
Scientist know a lot about super cooling: it turns out that ice crystals need nucleation points, to start forming. These nucleation points, could be anything from gas bubbles, to impurities to the rough surface of the container. Without these things, water would continue to be super cooled liquid well below its freezing point. When nucleation is triggered, then a super cooled water would instantly turn into ice, (https://youtu.be/DpiUZI_3o8s),
3. Glassy Water
Quick: how many phases of water are there? If you answer three (liquid, gas, and solid) you'd be wrong. There are at least 5 different phases of liquid water and 14 different phases (that scientists have found so far) of ice. Remember the super cooling we talked about before? Well, it turns out that no matter what you do, at -38 °C even the purest super cooled water, spontaneously turns into ice (with a little audible bang no less). But what happens if you continue to lower the temperature?, Well, at -120 °C something strange, starts to happen, the water becomes ultra viscous, or thick like molasses. And below -135 °C, it becomes glassy water, a solid with no crystal structure.
4. Quantum Properties of Water
At a molecular level, water is even weirder. In 1995, a neutron scattering experiment got a weird result: physicists found that when neutrons were aimed at water molecules, they saw, 25% fewer hydrogen protons than expected. Long story short, at the level of attoseconds, (10-18 seconds), there is a weird quantum effect going on(very scientific lol), and the chemical formula for water isn't H2O. It's actually H1.5O
5. Does Water Have Memory?, (yes)
In the alternative medicine of homeopathy, a dilute solution of a compound can is purported to have healing effects, even if the dilution factor is so large that statistically there isn't a single molecule of anything in it except for water. Homeopathy proponents explain this paradox with a concept called "water memory" where water molecules "remember" what particles were once dissolved in it.
This made no sense to Madeleine Ennis, a pharmacologist and professor at Queen's University in Belfast, Northern Ireland. Ennis, who also happened to be a vocal critic of homeopathy, devised an experiment to disprove "water memory" once and for all - but discovered that her result was the exact opposite!
In her most recent paper, Ennis describes how her team, looked at the effects of ultra-dilute solutions of histamine on human white blood cells, involved in inflammation. These basophils release histamine when the cells are under attack. Once released, the histamine stops them releasing, any more. The study, replicated in four different labs, found that homeopathic solutions, so dilute that they probably didn’t contain a single histamine molecule, worked just like histamine. Ennis might not be happy with the homeopaths’ claims, but she admits that an effect cannot be ruled out.
So how could it happen?, Homeopaths prepare their remedies by dissolving things like charcoal, deadly nightshade or spider venom in ethanol, and then diluting this "mother tincture" in water again and again. No matter what the level of dilution, homeopaths claim, the original remedy leaves some kind of imprint on the water molecules. Thus, however dilute the solution becomes, it is still imbued with the properties of the remedy.
You can understand why Ennis remains skeptical. And it remains true that no homeopathic remedy has ever been shown to work, in a large randomised placebo-controlled clinical trial. But the Belfast study suggests that something is going on. We are, Ennis says in her paper, unable to explain our findings, and are reporting them to encourage others, to investigate this phenomenon. If the results turn out to be real, she says, the implications are profound, we may have to rewrite physics and chemistry. (answer D Law, its actually more to do, with your intentions, towards the molecules, were all connected, even water remembers)
So far, other scientists failed to reproduce Ennis' experimental findings (throughout, Ennis herself was skeptical of the result's interpretation that water has a "memory" but maintained that the phenomenon she saw was real).
More recently, a team of scientists at the University of Toronto, Canada, and Max Born Institute in Germany, studying water dynamics, using fancy multi-dimensional nonlinear infrared spectroscopy, did find that water does have a memory of sort,s in form of hydrogen bond network, amongst water molecules. Problem for homeopathy was, this effect lasted only 50 femtoseconds (5 x 10-14 seconds), but if you feed an elephant a peanut, for 5 seconds, it will remember you, all its life as, standardz, hahahahahahaha, :) #edio