Ernesto Oroza is a Cuban artist whose work mostly involves industrial design and architecture. He is primarily based in Havana, Cuba, and the majority of his work has to do with the necessities of Cubans while living in the poor state of the country. Cubans experienced a massive change in their lifestyles due to Fidel Castro; they were now without electricity, running water, the ability to buy necessary products, and mass communication (such as television). While living in Cuba during this time, Oroza invented household necessities, such as lamps, chairs, toys, jewelry, etc., out of unconventional items or scraps. He developed the idea Architecture of Necessity, which is the development of items, buildings, or other things unconventionally due to restricting circumstances. The main examples Oroza displayed of this notion were pictures of houses that Cubans manually and illegally expanded horizontally and vertically to fit more family in them. The idea Architecture of Necessary goes against the American consumerist culture of buying things when they are needed, and instead promotes making these things out of objects one already has.