How are mushrooms grown
The article that everyone waited curiously came; How to grow mushrooms. Mushroom cultivation in many Third World countries has been a pity that mushroom cultivation has contributed to nurturing its populations so much that it has been ignored because the mushrooms we use in our meals are valuable as delicious and nutritious.
How are mushrooms grown
Biologically speaking, they contain better quality protein than green plants, important minerals such as iron, phosphorus, potassium and calcium, and almost all vitamins, including vitamin D. The edible fungus is particularly rich in vitamin B and B2. Furthermore, they contain fibers that promote digestion in humans as well as other health-friendly elements. It is a coincidence that some mushrooms were used for healing purposes in Europe and the Far East centuries ago. Another advantage is that it can be grown at home without any effort.
Which mushroom species should be grown?
In the last 25 years, several types of edible mushrooms have been grown. For the following important reasons, some Pleurotus strains (pleurotus sp.) Were selected from them.
Pleurotus sp. Incil Primary separation ”. They can settle on many agricultural waste products before being subjected to complex treatment.
• There are several Pleurotus species that are not sensitive to temperature and fruit between 25 ° and 27 ° C. Even if the temperature sometimes falls below 10 ° C, they continue to grow.
• The same culture method can be used for various Pleurotus species.
• The taste of oyster mushrooms is exquisite, has a high nutritional value and is boiled, fried, fried, dried and preserved.
What should be the culture medium for the cultivation of oyster mushrooms?
Almost all kinds of agricultural waste products can be used as compost if many cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin contain. For example, wheat, rye, barley or rice straw, dried stalks of corn, sunflower and millet, cocoa husk and coffee bean husk, peanut kernel and husk husk, tobacco stems, cotton leaves and stems and many more. Regardless of agricultural waste, it is important to be well dried and healthy. It must not be rotten, moldy or rotten; because oyster mushrooms can hardly grow in this material.
What is necessary in mushroom growing
Compost should also be pretreated for Pleurotus cultivation; Simple though. This requires a container for water storage. It doesn’t matter what the container does. If not sealed, primed with thick plastic coating. However, it is important that the container is at least 60 cm deep. The simplest solution we can recommend is to dig a 60 cm deep hole in the ground and combine it with a plastic coating.
How are mushrooms grown
The size of the water container depends on how large the mushroom culture is; In other words, how much substrate will need to be treated at a time. A container with a capacity of between 100 and 2001 is sufficient for micro-cultivation to meet household needs. Large Pleurotus cultures will require 5–10 m² containers.
The water container must have a sturdy lid that fits into the container (see Figure 2). The lid helps to press the substrate into the water container. However, since the substrate is lighter than water and floats to the surface, the weight of the lid should be weighed. Heavy stones, scrap iron or the like are suitable for this purpose.
Long agricultural waste products (straw, stalks) are used to plant Pleurotus 3–6 cm long before being cut into pieces is extremely useful. The blocks of the substrates can be made much more easily than the material divided into small pieces. The straw knife is the best tool for cutting straw and stalks.
Other agricultural wastes suitable for cultivation of Pleurotus (coffee bean nuts shells and cocoa shells, peanut shells, etc.) can be used without pretreatment.
Transparent, strong plastic bags are required for storage after surface treatment. The best sacks are 30 to 40 cm in diameter when filled; In other words, if they are laid flat, they are 50 to 60 cm wide. When flattened, the sacks should be between 100–150 cm. Bags of this size will hold approximately 20–30 kg of compost (as in Figure 2).
Processes to be applied when growing mushrooms
First, the water container is three-quarters filled with compost. Here, the advantage of separating the material into small pieces is about twice as clear as the long lasting straw or stalks can be filled into the container.
The lid is then placed into the container while the base material is still drying. The lid is then weighed evenly distributing the weights.
The water is now filled into the container until the water level is about 10 cm above the lid. In doing so, one eye must be kept on the weight surface because the substrate material floats and rises if the cover is not evenly distributed.
The water adds a selective fungicide. This prevents mold, but does not inhibit the growth of Pleurotus. This mold inhibitory effect is a great advantage in the initial growth stage of Pleurotus. He keeps the opponents away from the substrate until settled by Pleurotus. When the fungicide decomposes later, there will be no residue on the Pleurotus fruit bodies.
In our experience, Du Pont’s Benomyl (Benlate) is very suitable for this purpose. The required concentration is 100–150 ppm; In other words, 10 to 15 9 of Benomyl is needed for 1001 water. First, a suspension (mixture) of Benomyl, which needs about three or four liters of water, should be prepared and then the entire suspension should be poured into the water container as soon as possible before the required water level is reached. Benomyl powder should not be poured directly into the water container as it will form lumps and cannot be evenly distributed afterwards.
It is extremely important that the substrate remain submerged in the following time. A good culture for pleurotus cultivation can only be made from agricultural waste products in this way. Semi-anaerobic fermentation takes place under water. This is a process in which most of the bacteria involved act without oxygen. Furthermore, animal pests that prevent growth of the cultivated edible fungus in the lower floor were killed under water.
The fermentation continues for the duration of time, the compost is submerged for the entire time.
Two days after starting the fermentation, the water level is checked again. Since the substrate will absorb a lot of water in the meantime, the water level will be reduced, and the substrate may run out of water in pieces. If so, water should be poured immediately to restore the level to its original state. However, no further addition of Benomyl is required.
There is no evidence that water quality has any effect on the fermentation process. Experience so far has shown that any water is suitable. The temperature has little effect on the fermentation process, which runs smoothly at temperatures ranging from 8 ° to 28 ° C.
Mushroom compost seeding stage
After ten days, water is either drained or the substrate removed from the container. Now it smells a lot, but it disappears after a day or two.
The residual substrate is allowed to stand for another day, so that excess water can be drained. It is best to spread it on a clean plastic coating on a slightly sloping surface. The lower layer is then inoculated. Vaccination involves pleurotus fungus stacking downstairs and then mixing evenly.
How to produce mushroom seed (Misel)
One is a pure Pleurotus mushroom culture, spawning, also called “mushroom seed”. It is usually produced in a sterile wheat bed. Rye or millet. Mushroom growers buy eggs, such as harvesting seeds from arable farmers.
The biggest problem of mushroom growers in developing countries is the production of high quality mushrooms. With a few exceptions, spawning from Europe or the United States can be both very expensive and unreliable. Therefore, mushroom cultivation should be grown in every country that wants to grow edible mushrooms.
Ovulation of mushroom production is not a very complex technique, but we have to work in a sterile environment. These sterile environments are found only where certain technical and architectural prerequisites exist, and mushroom producers are therefore not considered to be spawning producers. However, each country has a university with appropriate rooms and facilities. The production of mushroom spawning should therefore be done first in a university. The university staff will learn the rapid production technique with a scientific education. By selling mushrooms that spawn to producers, or the university can even open a profitable source of income.
We will be glad to help you with the transfer of know-how to remove obstacles to growing edible mushrooms in developing countries.
Amount of seed (micelle) required
But now he returned to the growing Pleurotus. The amount of spawning required corresponds to three percent by weight of the moist substrate; In other words, 3 kg spawning is used per 100 kg surface. In most cases, it is impossible to weigh the floor and therefore its weight is only estimated. According to the density, one cubic meter of a fermented, moist layer weighs between 300–400 kg. This guide should help make predictions almost accurate. In addition, it should be noted that spawning equal to one third of the total weight is a good average value.
Two percent of the total weight is already sufficient and it is not wrong to add up to a quarter of the total weight spawn. Therefore, it is unimportant that the substrate does not overestimate or overestimate, as it is between 20–30% by weight.
Packaging in bag
An egg is best made using a shovel or fork, mixed evenly on the surface, filled into clear plastic bags. However, they must have holes first. The sacks are laid, for example, on a wooden board and the holes are drilled with a hole punch. The holes should be 1 cm to 1.5 cm wide and approximately 20 cm apart. The manner in which the holes should be placed on the sacks is shown in Figure 2. 2. As can be seen, the top one-third of the sack is not perforated. Approximately 24 holes are drilled in each bag.
The inoculated layer is now filled into perforated sacks and squeezed so that the sacks are filled firmly and evenly. The bags are filled so that they can still be attached very comfortably. The sacks are tightly bonded so that the layer covers the substrate as tightly as possible.
It is important to prevent gaps between the substrate and the substrate. However, if gaps are formed, the full sack falls to the floor several times from a lower height and the bottom layer spreads evenly. The sack is then firmly fastened once more.
Micelle winding phase
Most work has been done after being filled into grafted compost sacks. The colonization phase begins, where the thin white strings (mycelium) of the Pleurotus fungus slowly begin to collapse, all the compost. Approximately three weeks are required for the colonization stage of the mushroom culture, which requires no care. The only thing to watch is the temperature. During the colonization phase, the temperature of the compost should not exceed 23 ° C and 31 ° C. If the temperature in the substrate increases for a longer period of time to 33 ° C and 35 ° C, you may have to wait for the oyster mushroom threads to die. It should be noted that the rapidly growing Pleurotus mycelium itself will produce a certain increase in the temperature of the compost about seven to ten days after the onset of the colonization phase.
When the wheter is kept outdoors or in the shelter, the compost bags should be kept at a maximum air temperature of 25 ° C during the colonization phase. They should not be on top of each other or very close to each other. Instead, it should ensure that the air circulates freely around them. If this rule is stored during the colonization phase, the compost will not heat up at all.
How to harvest mushrooms?
Three weeks later, compost turns white as a result of the widespread, thick mycelium of the Pleurotus fungus. After that, the first small fruit-body bud is seen in the holes of the plastic sacks. According to the temperature, they are transformed into harvested mature clusters of large, corpses grown in 5–10 days.
During this time, it is best to have the substrate sacks in a shaded location outdoors or in the shelter. It should be noted that most mushrooms grow naturally in damp, shady places or occur after rain. This rule also applies to Pleurotus. Optimum fungal growth can only be achieved in a culture where shade and sufficient moisture are provided. Given these conditions, temperatures can sometimes rise to 30 ° C from time to time (compost is no longer active in this phase), and may even repeatedly fall below 10 ° C several times.
This does not disrupt the growth of mushrooms; Growth slows down at low temperatures. However, if the air is dry, small fruit-body buds can be dried automatically. There should be sprayed gently with water into the sacks once or twice a day. Finally, since Pleurotus needs light, it is important that you never store the pouches in a dark place. Without light, only deformed fruit bodies grow or do not suffice.
Pleurotus mushrooms should be harvested from the substrate when most of the fruit bodies in the house are more or less horizontal than the edge. For harvesting, the entire fruit-body cluster is separated from the bag. If the mushroom looks like shallow food, if the edges of the fruit bodies are facing upwards, then they become overripe. Soon they will become numb and slowly begin to rot.
Within eight to twelve weeks new fruit bodies will reappear. Total yield can range from three to four kilos per sack. Eventually, the mushroom stops growing, because the compost is more or less tired. Culture is no longer used. The sole use of the spent Pleurotus substrate is for loosening of arable soil, where it is at least a better organic fertilizer than simple cereal straw.