The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, usually known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,[note 10] is a sovereign nation lying off the north-western shore of the European terrain. The United Kingdom incorporates the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern piece of the island of Ireland and numerous littler islands. Northern Ireland is the main piece of the United Kingdom that offers a land fringe with another sovereign state—the Republic of Ireland. Aside from this land outskirt, the United Kingdom is encompassed by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to its east, the English Channel to its south and the Celtic Sea to its south-south-west, giving it the twelfth longest coastline on the planet. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland. With a territory of 242,500 square kilometers (93,600 sq mi), the United Kingdom is the 78th-biggest sovereign state on the planet. It is likewise the 22nd-most crowded nation, with an expected 66.0 million occupants in 2017.
The sovereign state is an established government with a parliamentary democracy. The ruler is Queen Elizabeth II, who has ruled since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state. The United Kingdom's capital and biggest city is London, a worldwide city and money related focus with a urban territory populace of 10.3 million. Other major urban territories in the UK incorporate the conurbations fixated on Manchester, Birmingham, Leeds, Glasgow and Liverpool.
The United Kingdom comprises of four nations: England, Northern Ireland, Scotland, and Wales. Their capitals are London, Belfast, Edinburgh, and Cardiff separately. Aside from England, the nations have degenerated administrations, each with changing powers. The adjacent Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown conditions with the British Government in charge of resistance and worldwide representation. The medieval victory and resulting addition of Wales by the Kingdom of England, trailed by the relationship among England and Scotland in 1707 to shape the Kingdom of Great Britain, and the association in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland made the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Five-sixths of Ireland withdrew from the UK in 1922, leaving the present definition of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.[note 11] There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remainders of the British Empire which, at its tallness in the 1920s, incorporated right around a fourth of the world's property mass and was the biggest realm ever. English impact can be seen in the dialect, culture and lawful frameworks of a considerable lot of its previous settlements.
The United Kingdom is a created nation and has the world's fifth-biggest economy by ostensible GDP and ninth-biggest economy by buying power equality. It has a high-salary economy and has a "high" Human Development Index, positioning fourteenth on the planet. It was the world's initially industrialized nation and the world's principal control amid the nineteenth and mid twentieth centuries. The United Kingdom remains an extraordinary power with impressive financial, social, military, logical and political impact internationally. It is a perceived atomic weapons state and is 6th in military consumption in the world. It has been a changeless individual from the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946. It has been a main part condition of the European Union (EU) and its forerunner, the European Economic Community (EEC), since 1973; be that as it may, a choice in 2016 brought about 51.9% of UK voters favoring leaving the European Union, and the nation's exit is being arranged. The United Kingdom is additionally an individual from the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organization for Economic Co-task and Development (OECD), Interpol and the World Trade Organization (WTO).